HISTORY OF AMERICAN ART EDUCATION: A TIME-LINE (1900-2010)
By W. Keith Brown
Introduction: Composing a history of art education is complex due to its relationship to two major fields of knowledge, visual art and education. Over time, these two disciplines have splintered into various academic taxonomies via diverse cultural and institutional shifts. Since the 1950s, art education has emerged as a discipline within the larger field of visual art to teach visual arts theories, practices, processes, and production methods. In lieu of teaching exclusively for the visual arts, art education, from the 1970s forward, has developed its own critically considered set of pedagogical and theoretical foundations, which investigate the intersection between power, knowledge, artistic experience, shared environments, and society. To my knowledge, a timeline of modern and postmodern art education has never been published, which is why there is such a need to display its many accomplishments and influences. Writing a historical document of any subject is risky, as Michael Foucault warns, the creator of histories has to make great generalizations regarding the significance of events included and excluded, therefore, all histories are suspect and should be regarded as such. It is very possible that certain voices and key events have been left out either by accident and/or poor judgment.

ART EDUCATION INFLUENCES BEFORE 1900
Plato (427-347 BC.) Philosopher
Socrates (469-399 BC.) Philosopher responsible for The Socratic Method in Education
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) French Education Philosopher
John Trumbull (1756-1843) American Academy of the Fine Arts, 1802, became National Academy of Design, 1825, NYC
Charles Wilson Peale (1741-1827), 1807, responsible for Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827) Education Reformer during Romanticism
Hegel (1770-1831) German Philosopher
Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852), responsible for the Kindergarten Movement
Horace Mann (1796-1859) 1840, created Common School Journal
Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) 1841, write Essays on Art
John White 1870, Drafted the Massachusetts Drawing Act
Walter Smith 1872, Required Drawing, Supervisor, Massachusetts
Art Students League of New York, 1874, a breakaway group from the National Academy
Karl Marx (1818-1883) Philosopher
William Morris (1834-1896)1885, founded Socialist League
John Ruskin (1819-1900) started Liberal Arts Education
Edward Mitchell Bannister (1828-1901) 1876 African American Philadelphia Centennial Art winner
Francis W. Parker (1837-1902) 1885, Talks on Teaching
William Torrey Harris (1835-1909) promoted Hegelian Idealism in art & education
Francisco Ferrer (1859-1909) Spanish Anarchist inspired Anarchist Free Schools
John Dewey (1859-1952) 1896 opens University of Chicago Laboratory Schools and publishes The School and Society, 1899


TIMELINE
1900-Sigmund Freud publishes The Interpretation of Dreams
1901-Henry T. Bailey publishes School Arts Magazine
-Henry T. Bailey, Fred Hamilton Daniels, and James Hall publish The first edition of The Applied Arts Book, later renamed School Arts
1902-Art Institute of Chicago, acquires The Sketchbooks of the Impressionists for education purposes
1903-Alfred Stieglitz creates Camera Notes
1904-Ernest Fenollosa publishes The Fine Arts
-G. Stanley Hall publishes Adolescence: Its Psychology and Its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion, and Education
1905-Sigmund Freud publishes Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality
1907-Maria Montessori writes about The Child's True Normal Nature
1909-Charles C. Dana starts the field of what is today termed Museum Education
1910-Louis Sullivan conducts The Kindergarten Chats
1912-Franz Cizek holds an exhibition of paintings and woodcuts by his students in Great Britain to raise money for his Juvenile Art Class
-Alfred Stieglitz opens an exhibition in his New York 291 gallery displaying artwork from children ages 2 to 13
1913-Arthur Wesley Dow publishes Composition: A Series of Exercises in Art Structure for the Use of Students and Teachers.
1915-Heinrich Wolfflin publishes his book The Principles of Art History
1916-Zurich, Switzerland, Dadaists begin collaborating at Cabaret Voltaire (their work influences all things Art related)
1917-Smith-Hughes National Vocational Education Act of 1917
1919-The Progressive Education Association is established to promote the ideas of John Dewey and other educational reformers, “Progressive School Movement”
-Bauhaus School opens in Germany (Walter Gropius, Weimer, Dessan, Albers, Moholy-Ng, Klee, Kandinsky
1920-Art Appreciation is taught in schools via the Picture Studies movement
-Creative expression and child-centered art education movements are in full swing because of John Dewey and other reformers
1921-A. S. Neil’s Summerhill School in England inspires the Free School movements worldwide and Democratic Education models used heavily today
1922-Felix Weil organizes a week-long symposium that becomes the Frankfurt School, which is born out of the Frankfurt Institute for Social Research
1923-György Lukács publishes History and Class Consciousness
1925-Albert Barnes publishes Negro Art and America in the Survey Graphic of Harlem
-Franz Fanon publishes Wretched of the Earth thus starting what later became Postcolonial Theory
1927-Charles & Mary Beard publishes The Rise of American Civilization
(1929-1943) The Wall Street Crash of 1929 (October) Depression Era begins
(1929-35) Marxist Antonio Gramsci writes the Prison Notebooks
-Museum of Modern Art (MOMA), NYC, opens
-Alfred N. Whitehead publishes Aims of Education
-William G. Whitford publishes An Introduction to Art Education
1932-Mies van der Rohe becomes Director of the College of Architecture, Planning and Design at the Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago
-Myles Horton founds the Highlander Folk School, Tennessee
(1933-1938) Owatonna Project was started in Owatonna, Minnesota. This was an educational project conducted in a small town in the Midwest to gauge the importance of art in general education. Findings published in 1944
(1933-1957) Black Mountain College (People: Josef and Anni Albers, Eric Bentley, Josef Breitenbach, Alfred Kazin, John Cage, Harry Callahan, Robert Creeley, Merce Cunningham, Max Dehn, Willem and Elaine de Kooning, Robert Duncan, Buckminster Fuller, Walter Gropius, Lou Harrison, Franz Kline, Jacob Lawrence, Richard Lippold, Charles Olson, M. C. Richards, Albert William Levi, Xanti Schawinsky, Ben Shahn, Aaron Siskind, Theodoros Stamos, Jack Tworkov, Robert Motherwell, and William R. Wunsch)
-Professor Franz Cizek’s ideas about the nature of children and art education become widespread through his Exhibition of Children’s Art in London in 1934, and 1935
(1934-1939) Work Progress Administration (WPA)
1934-Herbert Read publishes Art Now
-Federal Art Project (FAP) was incorporated into the Works Progress Administration (WPA) of the New Deal plan
-John Dewey Publishes Art as Experience
-Creative self-expression moves to a focus on community and everyday life in Art Education
1935-Walter Benjamin publishes The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction
1939-Irwin Edman publishes Arts and Man
-Viktor Lowenfeld publishes The Nature of Creative Activity
1940-Scientific Rationalism (academic disciplines movement or discipline oriented movement)
1943- Herbert Read publishes Education Through Art
-Victor D’Amico publishes Visual Arts in General Education
1941-Falkner, Ziegfeld, & Hill publish Art Today
-National Society for the Study of Education (NSSE) Yearbook, Art in American Life and Education
1943-Herbert Read publishes Education Through Art
1945-Herbert Read publishes Art & Society
1944-Gyorgy Kepes publishes The Language of Vision
1947-The National Art Education Association (NAEA) was founded fron the merger of the Western, Pacific, Southeastern, and Eastern Region Art Associations, plus the art department of the National Education Association (NEA)
-Art Therapy is pioneered
-Henri Lefebvre publishes The Critique of Everyday Life
1949-Herbert Read publishes Education for Peace
-Leon Winslow publishes The Integrated School Art Program
(1950s- Jerome Hausman, George Segal, and Allen Kaprow become friends and practicing art educators the New York / New Jersey area, Pratt Institute, NYU, Rutgers University)
1952-Viktor Lowenfeld publishes Creative and Mental Growth
1952-General Education in School and College: A Committee Report
1953-Edwin Ziegfeld publishes Education and Art via United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
-Conference on Creativity at Ohio State University, organized by Manual Barkin
1954-Brown vs. the Board of Education
1955- The College Board begins Advanced Placement (AP) programs
(1957-1972) Situationist International is formed by Guy Debord (will later impact art education, postmodernity, and collectivism)
-Ad Reinhardt writes Twelve Rules for a New Academy
1959-Jerome Hausman becomes editor of Studies in Art Education
1960-National Art Education Association (NAEA) Commission on Art Education, Jerome Hausman, Chairman
1964-Civil Rights Act of 1964
-Rudolf Arnheim publishes Art and Visual Perception
1966-Seminar in Art Education for Research and Curriculum Development, Penn State, Edward Matill
-Federation for Independent Schools Association (FISA) forms starting the Alternative Schools Movement
-Michael Foucault publishes The Order of Things: An Archeology of Human Sciences (his writings on power and knowledge impact all education)
(1967-1968) Regional Education Laboratories, Central Atlantic Regional Lab., Southwest Regional Lab., Central Midwestern Lab and the Aesthetic Education Project follows
1968- International Baccalaureate Organization creates (IB) programs, Switzerland
-Black Panther Party creates Survival Programs that focus on re-education in order for African Americans to acquire their own historic narratives
*Rethinking Schools and education reforms are popular in conservative circles as well as liberal progressive circles, each group has their own vision
1969-Albany Free School, Mary Leue
-Rudolf Arnheim publishes Visual Thinking
-Do It Yourself (DIY) is influencing art genres
1970-John Holt coins the term Unschooling
-Cape Town Schools and Prison education gets well-known
-Paulo Freire publishes Pedagogy of The Oppressed
-Art educators take up Critical Pedagogy and Social Justice causes
1971-Ivan Illich publishes Deschooling Society
1972-Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari publish Anti-Oedipus (vol. 1 or 2 for Capitalism and Schizophrenia series)
-John Berger publishes Ways of Seeing (one of the first texts on what will later be visual culture)
1973-Guy Debord publishes Society or the Spectacle
-Kenneth Beittel publishes Alternatives for Art Education Research: Inquiry Into the Making of Art
(1975-1988) Joseph Beuys creates Free International University (FIU), Germany
1977-Coming to Our Senses, The Significance of the Arts for American Education, Panel Report
-The Arts, Education, and Americans Panel, J.D. Rockefeller Jr. Chairman
1981-J. Paul Getty Foundation starts
-Jean Baudrillard publishes Simulacra and Simulation
*Discipline Based Art Education (DBAE) is popularized by Elliot Eisner
-Art Museum Education becomes a mainstay in the field of Art Education
-Multiculturalism and cultural pluralism become areas of focus through today
-Democratic Education becomes popular again and remains very important for educating in contemporary democracies.
1983-The report of the National Commission on Excellence in Education, A Nation at Risk, calls for sweeping reforms in public education and teacher training
1984-Frederick Jameson publishes Postmodernism or the Cultural Logic of Late-Capitalism
-Pierre Bourdieu publishes Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste
1990-1990-Teach for America is formed, reestablishing the idea of a National Teachers Corps.
1991-Minnesota passes the first charter school law
1992 *Do It Yourself (DIY) ethos and stratagem pervades art genres and education
1993-Jacqueline and Martin Brooks publish In Search of Understanding: The Case for Constructivist Classrooms
-The Massachusetts Education Reform Act requires a common curriculum and statewide tests (Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System)
1996-The Oakland, California School District proposes that Ebonics be recognized as the native language of African American children
1999-World Trade Organization (WTO) protests in Seattle spark massive anti-capital and anti-globalization movements in art and education
2000-Diane Ravitch's book, Left Back: A Century of Failed School Reforms
*Visual artists turn to ethnography, anthropological investigations, and pedagogy as artistic strategies
September 11, 2001, US Bombs Afghanistan beginning a War On Terror
2001-No Child Left Behind Act (more standards, more accountability, less art education)
*Assessments, evaluations, learning goals and other forms of knowledge measurements are made vital to education and teaching conservative politics run the show
-John Taylor Gatto publishes Against School
*Teaching for Artistic Behavior or Choice-Based Art Education is made popular
Social Issues-Based Art Education is also becoming important, Postmodern approaches to Art Education through Visual and Popular Culture Studies, Critical Pedagogy, Collectivity, and Community-Based Art Education emerge as dominants in the field but do little in changing the teaching of art in classrooms
2002-Yvonne Guadelius & Peg Speirs write Contemporary Issues in Art Education, which outlines recent histories and movements in Art Education
-Visual Culture makes its way into Art Education via Art History circles and higher education
2003- Kerry Freedman publishes Teaching Visual Culture: Curriculum, Aesthetics, and the Social Life of Art
-Utopian revival in art and education
2005- Graeme Sullivan publishes Art Practice as Research: Inquiry in the Visual Arts
-You Tube is created and everyone becomes an artist / documentary filmmaker
2007-Night School opens at New Museum in NYC, as a temporary art school in the museum
-Lois Hetland, Ellen Winner, Shirley Veenema, and Kimberly Sheridan publish Studio Thinking: The Real benefits of Arts Education
*Community Arts and Social Activism become mainstream art education practices
Diagrams and map-making along with arts research and new media are explored heavily and continue today. Artists also seek social interactions for art projects; education and art are popular art world tactics.
2008-Economy collapses due to inflated housing markets and credit default swaps
-Charles Garoian & Yvonne Guadilius publish Spectacle Pedagogy: Art, Politics, and Visual Culture
- Rachael Mason & Teresa Eca publish International Dialogues about Visual Culture, Education and Art
-Olafur Eliasson creates INSTITUT FÜR RAUMEXPERIMENTE, Berlin
2009-Art teaching jobs are cut nationwide due to state budget cuts stemming from economic collapse
-Bill Ayers, Therese Quinn, and David Stovall publish a Handbook of Social Justice in Education
-Steven Henry Madoff publishes Art School: Propositions for the 21st Century
-Dipti Desai publishes The Ethnographic Move in Contemporary Art: What Does It Mean for Art Education?
2010-Journal for Artistic Research (JAR) is published in Europe
-F. Robert Sabol publishes No Child Left Behind: A Study of Its Impact on Art Education
*Participation, collectivity, collaboration, the word democracy, free school revivals, art & pedagogy, exploring the art studio, and re-thinking museum and gallery structures are important as is multiculturalism and multiple perspectives.

Conclusion: The new millennium has used the trends of the past along with cultural, political, technological, and economic events to shape contemporary art education. These years are marked by confusion in conservative, liberal, progressive politics as well as art world(s), art markets, and the contradictions of postmodernity. As practicing art educators, we see no easy way in comprehending considered distinctions between life, art, politics, economics, capital, consumerism, labor, popular culture, and radical new technologies that alter communication. Today popular forms of art education use combinations of multiculturalism/pluralism, constructivism, DBAE, critical pedagogy, anti-globalization studies, visual culture, arts research, anti-capitalism, community arts, social justice, environmental activism, mapping/diagrams, and food activism for the purposes of engaging students of art. Methodologies in education and art guide practices toward a more meaningful art education. Everything is being tried and practiced all at once by many different people, some out-dated, some innovative.
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References:
http://visualarteducation.wikispaces.com/
http://www.cloudnet.com/~edrbsass/educationhistorytimeline.html
http://www.personal.psu.edu/mas53/timelint.html
Jerome Hausman
Efland, A (1990). A History of Art Education: New York. Teachers College Press.
Foster, H., Krauss, R., Bois, Y.A., & Buchloh, H.D. (2004). Art Since 1900: Modernism, Antimodernism, and Postmodernism. New York: Thames & Hudson, Inc.
http://www.wikipedia.org/
*asterisks represent areas of generalization of discursive movements and shifts
(Some references were paraphrased, lifted, and directly implemented in the making of this time line.)